Visa bulletin november 2013 analysis essay
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- Barack Obama
A member of the Democratic Party , he was the first African American to be elected to the presidency. He previously served as a U. Obama was born in Honolulu , Hawaii. After graduating from Columbia University in , he worked as a community organizer in Chicago. After graduating, he became a civil rights attorney and an academic, teaching constitutional law at the University of Chicago Law School from to He represented the 13th district for three terms in the Illinois Senate from until , when he ran for the U.
He received national attention in with his March primary win, his well-received July Democratic National Convention keynote address , and his landslide November election to the Senate. In , he was nominated for president a year after his campaign began, after a close primary campaign against Hillary Clinton.
Nine months later, he was named the Nobel Peace Prize laureate. Regarded as a centrist New Democrat , Obama signed many landmark bills into law during his first two years in office. After a lengthy debate over the national debt limit, he signed the Budget Control and the American Taxpayer Relief Acts.
In foreign policy, he increased U. He ordered military involvement in Libya , contributing to the overthrow of Muammar Gaddafi. He also ordered the military operations that resulted in the deaths of Osama bin Laden and suspected Yemeni Al-Qaeda operative Anwar al-Awlaki. After winning re-election by defeating Republican opponent Mitt Romney , Obama was sworn in for a second term in His administration filed briefs that urged the Supreme Court to strike down same-sex marriage bans as unconstitutional United States v.
Windsor and Obergefell v. Hodges ; same-sex marriage was fully legalized in after the Court ruled that a same-sex marriage ban was unconstitutional in Obergefell. He advocated for gun control in response to the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting , indicating support for a ban on assault weapons, and issued wide-ranging executive actions concerning global warming and immigration.
In foreign policy, he ordered military intervention in Iraq in response to gains made by ISIL after the withdrawal from Iraq, continued the process of ending U. Obama nominated three justices to the Supreme Court : Sonia Sotomayor and Elena Kagan were confirmed as justices, while Merrick Garland faced unprecedented partisan obstruction and was ultimately not confirmed. During his term in office, America's soft power and reputation abroad significantly improved.
Obama's presidency has generally been regarded favorably, and evaluations of his presidency among historians, political scientists, and the general public place him among the upper tier of American presidents.
Obama left office and retired in January and currently resides in Washington, D. Eisenhower was selected most admired in twelve non-consecutive years. Obama's parents met in in a Russian language class at the University of Hawaii at Manoa , where his father was a foreign student on a scholarship.
In late August , a few weeks after he was born, Barack and his mother moved to the University of Washington in Seattle , where they lived for a year. During that time, the elder Obama completed his undergraduate degree in economics in Hawaii, graduating in June He left to attend graduate school on a scholarship at Harvard University , where he earned an M.
A Note for Former HighBeam Users
Obama's parents divorced in March The couple married on Molokai on March 15, His wife and stepson followed sixteen months later in The family initially lived in the Menteng Dalam neighborhood in the Tebet sub district of south Jakarta. From , they lived in a wealthier neighborhood in the Menteng sub district of central Jakarta. Obama started in St. Francis Pre-Education from age three to five.
In , Obama returned to Honolulu to live with his maternal grandparents, Madelyn and Stanley Dunham.
He attended Punahou School —a private college preparatory school —with the aid of a scholarship from fifth grade until he graduated from high school in Obama later reflected on his years in Honolulu and wrote: "The opportunity that Hawaii offered — to experience a variety of cultures in a climate of mutual respect — became an integral part of my world view, and a basis for the values that I hold most dear.
In February , Obama made his first public speech, calling for Occidental to participate in the disinvestment from South Africa in response to that nation's policy of apartheid.
In a interview, Obama highlighted the diversity of his extended family : "It's like a little mini-United Nations", he said. Obama also has roots in Ireland; he met with his Irish cousins in Moneygall in May He also shares distant ancestors in common with George W.
Bush and Dick Cheney , among others. Obama lived with anthropologist Sheila Miyoshi Jager while he was a community organizer in Chicago in the s. When they moved to Washington, D. In early , Michelle spoke about her husband's smoking habit and said Barack had quit smoking.
On his 55th birthday, August 4, , Obama penned an essay in Glamour , in which he described how his daughters and the presidency have made him a feminist. Obama is a Protestant Christian whose religious views developed in his adult life.
He described his mother, raised by non-religious parents, as being detached from religion, yet "in many ways the most spiritually awakened person I have ever known".
He described his father as a "confirmed atheist " by the time his parents met, and his stepfather as "a man who saw religion as not particularly useful". Obama explained how, through working with black churches as a community organizer while in his twenties, he came to understand "the power of the African-American religious tradition to spur social change.
I believe in the redemptive death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. I believe that faith gives me a path to be cleansed of sin and have eternal life.
Homophobia in ethnic minority communities
My family didn't — frankly, they weren't folks who went to church every week. And my mother was one of the most spiritual people I knew, but she didn't raise me in the church. So I came to my Christian faith later in life, and it was because the precepts of Jesus Christ spoke to me in terms of the kind of life that I would want to lead — being my brothers' and sisters' keeper, treating others as they would treat me.
John's Episcopal Church , as well as Evergreen Chapel at Camp David , but the members of the family do not attend church on a regular basis.
Two years after graduating from Columbia, Obama moved from New York to Chicago when he was hired as director of the Developing Communities Project , a church-based community organization originally comprising eight Catholic parishes in Roseland , West Pullman , and Riverdale on Chicago's South Side. He worked there as a community organizer from June to May The manuscript was published in mid as Dreams from My Father. From April to October , Obama directed Illinois's Project Vote , a voter registration campaign with ten staffers and seven hundred volunteer registrars; it achieved its goal of registering , of , unregistered African Americans in the state, leading Crain's Chicago Business to name Obama to its list of "40 under Forty" powers to be.
Questia at a glance
In , he was listed as one of the lawyers in Buycks-Roberson v. Citibank Fed. Bank , 94 C N. From to , Obama served on the boards of directors of the Woods Fund of Chicago —which in had been the first foundation to fund the Developing Communities Project—and of the Joyce Foundation.
He was reelected to the Illinois Senate in , defeating Republican Yesse Yehudah in the general election, and was re-elected again in In January , Obama became chairman of the Illinois Senate's Health and Human Services Committee when Democrats, after a decade in the minority, regained a majority. Senate, police representatives credited Obama for his active engagement with police organizations in enacting death penalty reforms.
In May , Obama commissioned a poll to assess his prospects in a U. Senate race. He created a campaign committee, began raising funds, and lined up political media consultant David Axelrod by August Obama formally announced his candidacy in January Obama was an early opponent of the George W. Bush administration's invasion of Iraq. Decisions by Republican incumbent Peter Fitzgerald and his Democratic predecessor Carol Moseley Braun to not participate in the election resulted in wide-open Democratic and Republican primary contests involving 15 candidates.
His speech was well received and elevated his status within the Democratic Party. Obama's expected opponent in the general election, Republican primary winner Jack Ryan , withdrew from the race in June Obama was sworn in as a senator on January 3, ,  becoming the only Senate member of the Congressional Black Caucus.
Obama announced on November 13, , that he would resign his Senate seat on November 16, , before the start of the lame-duck session, to focus on his transition period for the presidency. Obama sponsored legislation that would have required nuclear plant owners to notify state and local authorities of radioactive leaks, but the bill failed to pass in the full Senate after being heavily modified in committee.
In December , President Bush signed into law the Democratic Republic of the Congo Relief, Security, and Democracy Promotion Act, marking the first federal legislation to be enacted with Obama as its primary sponsor. Later in , Obama sponsored an amendment to the Defense Authorization Act to add safeguards for personality-disorder military discharges. He met with Mahmoud Abbas before Abbas became President of the Palestinian National Authority , and gave a speech at the University of Nairobi in which he condemned corruption within the Kenyan government.
Numerous candidates entered the Democratic Party presidential primaries.
The field narrowed to a duel between Obama and Senator Hillary Clinton after early contests, with the race remaining close throughout the primary process but with Obama gaining a steady lead in pledged delegates due to better long-range planning, superior fundraising, dominant organizing in caucus states, and better exploitation of delegate allocation rules. During both the primary process and the general election, Obama's campaign set numerous fundraising records, particularly in the quantity of small donations.
John McCain was nominated as the Republican candidate, and he selected Sarah Palin as his running mate. The two candidates engaged in three presidential debates in September and October On April 4, , Obama announced his reelection campaign for in a video titled "It Begins with Us" that he posted on his website and filed election papers with the Federal Election Commission.
On November 6, , Obama won electoral votes , exceeding the required for him to be reelected as president. Roosevelt to win the majority of the popular vote twice. You elected us to focus on your jobs, not ours. And in the coming weeks and months, I am looking forward to reaching out and working with leaders of both parties.
The inauguration of Barack Obama as the 44th President took place on January 20, In his first few days in office, Obama issued executive orders and presidential memoranda directing the U. Bush 's restoration of President Ronald Reagan 's Mexico City Policy prohibiting federal aid to international family planning organizations that perform or provide counseling about abortion. The first bill signed into law by Obama was the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of , relaxing the statute of limitations for equal-pay lawsuits.