Water quality index thesis generator
Water quality index (WQI) is valuable and unique rating to depict the overall water quality status in a single term that is helpful for the selection of appropriate treatment technique . Water quality index is a point scale that summarizes results from a total of nine different measurements when complete: Using the book Field Manual for Water Quality Monitoring, the National Sanitation Foundation surveyed people representing a wide range of positions at the local, state, and national level about 35 water quality tests Author: Mr. Brian Oram, PG. Water quality in aquatic systems is important because it maintains the ecological processes that support biodiversity. However, declining water quality due to environmental perturbations threatens the stability of the biotic integrity and therefore hinders the ecosystem services and functions of aquatic ecosystems. ii ANNA UNIVERSITY CHENNAI BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE Certified that this thesis titled “WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT AND PREDICTION MODELLING OF NAMBIYAR RIVER BASIN, TAMIL NADU, INDIA” is the bonafide work ofMr. GAJENDRAN, . Thesis statement is a key part of the writing assignment. Creating your own thesis statement has never been so FAST and pomononslici.cf it now for FREE.. Choose a topic; Use short phrases and fill .
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Applied Water Science. The Kolong River of Nagaon district, Assam has been facing serious degradation leading to its current moribund condition due to a drastic human intervention in the form of an embankment put across it near its take-off point from the Brahmaputra River in the year The blockage of the river flow was adopted as a flood control measure to protect its riparian areas, especially the Nagaon town, from flood hazard.
The river, once a blooming distributary of the mighty Brahmaputra, had high navigability and rich riparian biodiversity with a well established agriculturally productive watershed. However, the present status of Kolong River is highly wretched as a consequence of the post-dam effects thus leaving it as stagnant pools of polluted water with negligible socio-economic and ecological value.
Thus, this study is conducted to analyze the seasonal water quality status of the Kolong River in terms of water quality index WQI. The WQI scores shows very poor to unsuitable quality of water samples in almost all the seven sampling sites along the Kolong River. The water quality is found to be most deteriorated during monsoon season with an average WQI value of Out of the seven sampling sites, Hatimura site S1 and Nagaon Town site S4 are observed to be the most polluted sites.
Freshwater sources in the form of rivers are very much essential for the sustenance and well being of a hale and hearty society. Unfortunately, during the last few decades these natural resources are continuously being tainted all around the world for the sake of development and flood hazard mitigation.
However, north-east India is blessed enough to have bounty of accessible freshwater sources in the form of various rivers, streams, lakes, swamps, marshes, etc. These rivers are the lifelines of these regions acting like arteries in our body and are supporting the social, ecological, cultural and overall environmental setup.
Additionally, these rivers along with their numerous wetlands formed and feed by them also serve as the refuge to diverse organisms and sub-ecosystems. Natural flow patterns are the heartbeat of a river. Each component of a flow regime—ranging from low flow to seasonal floods play a vital role in shaping a river ecosystem and livelihoods of river-dependent communities.
Until recently, rivers of north-eastern region of India were in pristine free-flowing and unpolluted condition. However, during the last few decades in the pursuit to cope up with rest of the world in terms of development, our freshwater resources are continuously being tainted and deteriorated to an inconceivable stage. Out of various negative anthropogenic acts being perpetuated over our rivers those requiring special mention are water pollution from various point and non-point sources, damming both for hydroelectricity generation as well as flood control , over abstraction and human encroachment.
Ecosystems and communities dependent on natural flow regime have already experienced the adverse impacts of altered flow regimes due to engineering interventions. Kolong River of Nagaon district in Assam is an appropriate example of such human intervention which is facing the gripe for the past fifty years.
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The Kolong River which once used to be a prize possession for the people of the state in general and for the people of Nagaon in particular, is presently gasping on its death-bed because of the ruthless and untenable act perpetrated on it in the name of engineering solution to the increasing flood hazard attributed to it in the aftermath of the great Assam earthquake of During the years preceding , primarily as a consequence of the great Assam earthquake of measuring 8.
Mainly as a response to the increasing food hazard faced by the district administrative headquarter, i. This drastic human intervention has end up in converting the once free flowing river into a string of alternating dry stretches and stagnant pools during the decades that followed Bora and Goswami The river in the present scenario with negligible self-purification capacity is facing severe anthropogenic pressure and acts as the receiver of huge amount of point and non-point pollutants.
To restore the health of the Kolong River, a sustainable river-restoration plan seeks its exigency. Thus, the overall aim of the present investigation is to finalize the prevailing water quality inventory of the Kolong River based on WQI and then to propose effective measures to revitalize the Kolong River within the milieu of the continued urbanization by restoring it to its natural state, while allowing the river system to continue to support flood management, landscape development and recreational activities.
A water quality index WQI helps in understanding the general water quality status of a water source and hence it has been applied for both surface and ground water quality assessment all around the world since the last few decades Samantray et al.
The main purpose of developing a WQI is to transform a complex set of water quality data into lucid and exploitable information by which a layman can know the status of the water source Akoteyon et al. WQI aims at giving a single value to the water quality of a source by translating the list of parameters and their concentrations present in a sample into a single value, which in turn provides an extensive interpretation of the quality of water and its suitability for various purposes like drinking, irrigation, fishing etc.
Water Quality Assessment in Terms of Water Quality Index
Abbasi Although, water pollution is a chief matter of apprehension in regard to Kolong River, the water quality issue of the river has not yet got its due importance. However, few scientific investigations on water quality assessment of Kolong River Saikia and Sarma ; Barbaruah et al.
Fluoride geochemistry of Kolong River was discussed elaborately by Saikia and Sarma They found that the fluoride concentration of groundwater samples collected from Kolong River basin ranged between 0.
Khan and Hazarika reported that the increased pollution level of Kolong River water is mainly attributed by the discharge of various types of domestic and commercial waste water, sewage and effluent.
Moreover, the truncated river flow accompanied with diminished flow velocity has reduced the self-assimilation and self-purification capacity of the Kolong River Bora and Goswami Ironically, literature survey revealed the fact that so far no detailed work on WQI has been carried out for Kolong River.
Hence, in continuation of our previous work Bora and Goswami , , the present investigation is carried out to establish the general pollution trend of the river and to determine the aptness of the water for various purposes based on a set of observed water quality parameters. WQI range, status and possible usage of the water sample Brown et al. Electrical conductivity measures the electric current carrying capacity of a water sample and is directly related to the dissolved ions present in the water.
Suspended and dissolved solids are both organic as well as inorganic in nature. Similarly, TDS values were also within the desirable limit with mean values of Hardness implies the lather forming capacity of a water sample and the two cations mainly responsible for hardness of water are calcium and magnesium.
Based on the hardness values, Kolong River water generally falls under moderately hard to hard water category. Chloride is one of the important WQ parameter and is widely distributed in nature in the form of salts of sodium NaCl , potassium KCl and calcium CaCl 2. Various sources contributing chloride in water are leaching from various rocks by the process of weathering, surface run-off from inorganic fertilizers dependent agricultural fields, irrigation discharge, animal feeds, etc.
The observed chloride concentrations were well within the desirable limit cited by BIS, i. Amount of total oxygen dissolved in a water body is termed as dissolved oxygen DO and its concentration depend on physical, chemical and biological activities of the water body. Estimation of DO is very much essential in water pollution control. Water sample with DO concentration below this optimum range is expected to be polluted. The mean DO values ranged from a minimum of 2. The total amount of oxygen required by aerobic micro-organisms for complete degradation of organic wastes present in a water body is termed as biochemical oxygen demand BOD.
Thus, BOD is an indicator of organic pollution with higher values indicating higher levels of organic pollution Patel et al.
The higher values of BOD emphasized the presence of prominent organic pollution source near the sampling sites. Occurrence of sulphate in river water is mainly natural in nature contributed chiefly by mineral sources like gypsum, etc. Although in small concentration sulphate is harmless, however, high concentration of sulphate in drinking water may cause various intestinal diseases.
Mean sulphate concentration of the water samples under investigation varied from Total alkalinity is the capability of an aqueous solution to neutralize an acid. Alkalinity is due to the various carbonate, bicarbonate and hydroxide ions present in water. The mean concentration of alkalinity in water samples was observed to be Relative weights W n of the parameters used for WQI determination.
Unit weight W n. The WQI values of site S6, i. The comparatively improved water quality condition at site S6 is mainly because of the dilution of the polluted Kolong River water with less polluted Kopili River water, besides the absence of any major urban agglomeration. In monsoon season, the water qualities of all the sampling sites were found unsuitable except at site S5 and S6 where the water is of very poor quality, as depicted in Fig.
During pre-monsoon season, water quality of the sampling sites was found to fall under unsuitable to poor water quality. During post-monsoon season, site S6 experienced marginally good water quality while the rest lied in unsuitable, very poor and poor water quality category Fig. Interestingly, the WQI scores for site S1 showed unsuitable water quality status during every sampling season mainly because of the lack of sufficient flow in addition to increased organic pollution load, thus reducing the self-purification capacity of the river at the site.
Water quality index is helpful in assessment and management of water quality. The present investigation represents the first of its type undertaken on the Kolong River of Assam. The case study provides valuable insight into the status of overall suitability of the Kolong River water based on WQI values.
It highlights the salient features of various important physico-chemical parameters acting upon the general water quality of the river. The season wise variations in the WQI values were examined based on seasonal water quality analysis data of seven sampling sites distributed along the river channel. The baseline data generated in these investigations and their analysis and interpretation will go a long way in improving our understanding and knowledge base about the status of water quality of a socio-economically vital fluvial system, i.
The study has both academic value and practical significance. Based on observed WQI results it can be concluded that effective treatment measures are urgently required to augment the river water quality by defining an appropriate water quality management plan which in turn will support any future plan for sustainable river restoration. Besides, desilting measures to improve the carrying capacity of the river channel needs to be adopted and existing encroachments for settlement and infrastructural development should be removed.
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Open Access. First Online: 27 July Introduction Freshwater sources in the form of rivers are very much essential for the sustenance and well being of a hale and hearty society.
Study area This study is conducted in the Kolong River which is an important river of middle Assam. The river during its course traverses through the plains of Nagaon, Morigaon and Kamrup districts of Assam. During the course from source to mouth the Kolong River is joined by three main tributaries namely Misa, Dizu and Haria.
Open image in new window. Water samples were collected from seven sampling sites viz. The details of sampling sites are shown in Fig. Various physico-chemical parameters of the water samples were analyzed by following the standard methods of APHA and Trivedy and Goel For calculating WQI, the prime pre-requisite is the results of various water quality analyses.
Parameter Pre-monsoon Monsoon Post-monsoon pH 7. By assigning unit-weights, all the concerned parameters of different units and dimensions are transformed to a common scale. Maximum weight, i. Highest WQI values were recorded during monsoon season with values ranging from a low of The unsuitability of river water during monsoon season is mainly attributed by increased surface run-off from the adjacent urban agglomerations and direct discharge from storm water drains along roads adjacent to the river; similar results were also observed by Sebastian and Yamakanamardi in case of Cauvery River.
The WQI analysis unveiled the fact that site S1 and site S4 were the two most polluted sites along the entire reach of the Kolong River.