Leiden university psychology application essay
The University of Oxford is a collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as ,  making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's second-oldest university in continuous operation after the University of Bologna. The history and influence of the University of Oxford has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world.
The university is made up of 39 constituent colleges , and a range of academic departments, which are organised into four divisions. Undergraduate teaching at Oxford is organised around weekly tutorials at the colleges and halls, supported by classes, lectures, seminars, and laboratory work provided by university faculties and departments; some postgraduate teaching includes tutorials organised by faculties and departments.
It operates the world's oldest university museum , as well as the largest university press in the world  and the largest academic library system nationwide. Oxford has educated many notable alumni, including 28 prime ministers of the United Kingdom and many heads of state and government around the world.
The University of Oxford has no known foundation date. The head of the university had the title of chancellor from at least , and the masters were recognised as a universitas or corporation in After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in , some academics fled from the violence to Cambridge , later forming the University of Cambridge. The students associated together on the basis of geographical origins, into two ' nations ', representing the North northerners or Boreales , who included the English people from north of the River Trent and the Scots and the South southerners or Australes , who included English people from south of the Trent, the Irish and the Welsh.
In addition, members of many religious orders , including Dominicans , Franciscans , Carmelites and Augustinians , settled in Oxford in the midth century, gained influence and maintained houses or halls for students.
Among the earliest such founders were William of Durham , who in endowed University College ,  and John Balliol , father of a future King of Scots ; Balliol College bears his name.
University of Oxford
Thereafter, an increasing number of students lived in colleges rather than in halls and religious houses. In —, an attempt by some dissatisfied Oxford scholars to found a new university at Stamford, Lincolnshire , was blocked by the universities of Oxford and Cambridge petitioning King Edward III.
The new learning of the Renaissance greatly influenced Oxford from the late 15th century onwards. Among university scholars of the period were William Grocyn , who contributed to the revival of Greek language studies, and John Colet , the noted biblical scholar. With the English Reformation and the breaking of communion with the Roman Catholic Church , recusant scholars from Oxford fled to continental Europe, settling especially at the University of Douai.
As a centre of learning and scholarship, Oxford's reputation declined in the Age of Enlightenment ; enrolments fell and teaching was neglected. In  William Laud , the chancellor and Archbishop of Canterbury , codified the university's statutes. These, to a large extent, remained its governing regulations until the midth century. Laud was also responsible for the granting of a charter securing privileges for the University Press , and he made significant contributions to the Bodleian Library , the main library of the university.
From the beginnings of the Church of England as the established church until , membership of the church was a requirement to receive the BA degree from the university and " dissenters " were only permitted to receive the MA in The university was a centre of the Royalist party during the English Civil War — , while the town favoured the opposing Parliamentarian cause. Wadham College , founded in , was the undergraduate college of Sir Christopher Wren.
Wren was part of a brilliant group of experimental scientists at Oxford in the s, the Oxford Philosophical Club , which included Robert Boyle and Robert Hooke. This group held regular meetings at Wadham under the guidance of the College's Warden, John Wilkins , and the group formed the nucleus that went on to found the Royal Society. Before reforms in the early 19th century the curriculum at Oxford was notoriously narrow and impractical. Sir Spencer Walpole , a historian of contemporary Britain and a senior government official, had not attended any university.
He says, "few medical men, few solicitors, few persons intended for commerce or trade, ever dreamed of passing through a university career. Among the many deficiencies attending a university education there was, however, one good thing about it, and that was the education which the undergraduates gave themselves.
It was impossible to collect some thousand or twelve hundred of the best young men in England, to give them the opportunity of making acquaintance with one another, and full liberty to live their lives in their own way, without evolving in the best among them, some admirable qualities of loyalty, independence, and self-control. If the average undergraduate carried from University little or no learning, which was of any service to him, he carried from it a knowledge of men and respect for his fellows and himself, a reverence for the past, a code of honour for the present, which could not but be serviceable.
He had enjoyed opportunities He might have mixed with them in his sports, in his studies, and perhaps in his debating society; and any associations which he had this formed had been useful to him at the time, and might be a source of satisfaction to him in after life. Curthoys and H. Jones argue that the rise of organised sport was one of the most remarkable and distinctive features of the history of the universities of Oxford and Cambridge in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
It was carried over from the athleticism prevalent at the public schools such as Eton , Winchester , Shrewsbury , and Harrow.
All students, regardless of their chosen area of study, were required to spend at least their first year preparing for a first year examination that was heavily focused on classical languages. Science students found this particularly burdensome and supported a separate science degree with Greek language study removed from their required courses.
This concept of a bachelor of science had been adopted at other European universities London University had implemented it in but an proposal at Oxford to replace the classical requirement with a modern language like German or French was unsuccessful. After considerable internal wrangling over the structure of the arts curriculum, in the "natural science preliminary" was recognized as a qualifying part of the first year examination.
At the start of the university housed about 3, undergraduates and about postgraduate students. During the First World War many undergraduates and Fellows joined the armed forces.
By virtually all Fellows were in uniform, and the student population in residence was reduced to 12 per cent of the pre-war total. During the war years the university buildings became hospitals, cadet schools and military training camps. Two parliamentary commissions in issued recommendations for Oxford and Cambridge. Archibald Campbell Tait , former headmaster of Rugby School, was a key member of the Oxford Commission; he wanted Oxford to follow the German and Scottish model in which the professorship was paramount.
The Commission's report envisioned a centralised university run predominantly by professors and faculties, with a much stronger emphasis on research. The professional staff should be strengthened and better paid. For students, restrictions on entry should be dropped, and more opportunity given to poorer families.
It called for an enlargement of the curriculum, with honours to be awarded in many new fields. Undergraduate scholarships should be open to all Britons.
Graduate fellowships should be opened up to all members of the university. It recommended that fellows be released from an obligation for ordination. Students were to be allowed to save money by boarding in the city, instead of in a college.
The system of separate honour schools for different subjects began in , with Mathematics and Literae Humaniores. Theology became the sixth honour school. Honours degrees, the postgraduate Bachelor of Civil Law B.
The midth century saw the impact of the Oxford Movement — , led among others by the future Cardinal John Henry Newman. Administrative reforms during the 19th century included the replacement of oral examinations with written entrance tests, greater tolerance for religious dissent , and the establishment of four women's colleges.
Privy Council decisions in the 20th century e. Furthermore, although the university's emphasis had historically been on classical knowledge, its curriculum expanded during the 19th century to include scientific and medical studies. Knowledge of Ancient Greek was required for admission until , and Latin until The University of Oxford began to award doctorates for research in the first third of the 20th century.
The first Oxford DPhil in mathematics was awarded in The midth century saw many distinguished continental scholars, displaced by Nazism and communism, relocating to Oxford. The list of distinguished scholars at the University of Oxford is long and includes many who have made major contributions to politics, the sciences, medicine, and literature.
More than 50 Nobel laureates and more than 50 world leaders have been affiliated with the University of Oxford. The university passed a statute in allowing examinations for women at roughly undergraduate level;  for a brief period in the early s, this allowed the " steamboat ladies " to receive ad eundem degrees from the University of Dublin. Some of the more prominent members of the association were George Granville Bradley , T.
Green and Edward Stuart Talbot. Talbot insisted on a specifically Anglican institution, which was unacceptable to most of the other members.
Green founded the non-denominational Somerville College in These first three societies for women were followed by St Hugh's  and St Hilda's In women were admitted as medical students on a par with men, and in the university accepted financial responsibility for women's examinations. On 7 October women became eligible for admission as full members of the university and were given the right to take degrees.
It was not until that the women's colleges were given full collegiate status. In , Brasenose , Jesus , Wadham , Hertford and St Catherine's became the first previously all-male colleges to admit women. In June , Oxford announced that starting the following academic year, history students may choose to sit a take-home exam in some courses, with the intention that this will equalise rates of firsts awarded to women and men at Oxford.
The detective novel Gaudy Night by Dorothy L.
Sayers , herself one of the first women to gain an academic degree from Oxford, is largely set in the all-female Shrewsbury College, Oxford based on Sayers' own Somerville College  , and the issue of women's education is central to its plot. The university is a "city university" in that it does not have a main campus; instead, colleges, departments, accommodation, and other facilities are scattered throughout the city centre.
The Science Area , in which most science departments are located, is the area that bears closest resemblance to a campus.
The ten-acre 4 hectare Radcliffe Observatory Quarter in the northwest of the city is currently under development. However, the larger colleges' sites are of similar size to these areas.
Iconic university buildings include the Radcliffe Camera , the Sheldonian Theatre used for music concerts, lectures, and university ceremonies, and the Examination Schools , where examinations and some lectures take place.
The University Church of St Mary the Virgin was used for university ceremonies before the construction of the Sheldonian. Christ Church Cathedral uniquely serves as both a college chapel and as a cathedral.
It is open to the public during daylight hours. As well as providing gardens and exotic plants, the Parks contains numerous sports fields, used for official and unofficial fixtures, and also contains sites of special interest including the Genetic Garden, an experimental garden to elucidate and investigate evolutionary processes.
It contains over 8, different plant species on 1. The 1,acre 4. There are also various collegiate-owned open spaces open to the public, including Bagley Wood and most notably Christ Church Meadow. As a collegiate university , Oxford's structure can be confusing to those unfamiliar with it. The university is a federation, comprising over forty self-governing colleges and halls , along with a central administration headed by the Vice-Chancellor.
Academic departments are located centrally within the structure of the federation; they are not affiliated with any particular college. Departments provide facilities for teaching and research, determine the syllabi and guidelines for the teaching of students, perform research, and deliver lectures and seminars.
Colleges arrange the tutorial teaching for their undergraduates, and the members of an academic department are spread around many colleges.