Essay about uk culture secretary
The United Kingdom is comprised of four countries: England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland (UK – Language, Culture, Customs and Etiquette). Now all of these countries share a common thing, and that is to address a person from a country properly. UK Culture Secretary Latest Breaking News, Pictures, Videos, and Special Reports from The Economic Times. UK Culture Secretary Blogs, Comments and Archive News on pomononslici.cf Dec 15, · What is British Culture? Essay Thesis Words | 3 Pages. When Sociologists use the term 'culture' they are referring to a 'whole way of life' within a particular society i.e. Different societies have different cultures.5/5(1). British colonies and dominions influenced British culture in turn, particularly British cuisine. Sport is an important part of British culture, and numerous sports originated in the country including football. The UK has been described as a "cultural superpower", and London has been described as . Organisational Culture. J. Steven Ott and Abdul M. Baksh, in their chapter contribution, Understanding Organizational Climate and Culture, in the HANDBOOK OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN GOVERNMENT (), assert that climate and culture make up the area wherein an organization's identity, personality, and distinctiveness develop and reside.
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British culture is influenced by the nation's history ; its predominantly Christian religious life , its interaction with the cultures of Europe, the traditions of England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland, and the impact of the British Empire. Although British culture is a distinct entity, the individual cultures of England , Scotland , Wales and Northern Ireland are diverse and have varying degrees of overlap and distinctiveness.
British literature is particularly esteemed. The novel was invented in Britain, and playwrights, poets, and authors are among its most prominent cultural figures. The UK is also the home of the Church of England , the state church and mother church of the Anglican Communion , the third-largest Christian denomination. Britain contains some of the world's oldest universities, has made many contributions to philosophy , science and, technology, and is the birthplace of many prominent scientists and inventions.
The Industrial Revolution began in the UK and had a profound effect on the family socio-economic and cultural conditions of the world.
As a result of the British Empire significant British influence can be observed in the language , law , culture and institutions of its former colonies, most of which are members of the Commonwealth of Nations.
A subsection of these states form the Anglosphere , and are among Britain's closest allies. The UK has been described as a "cultural superpower",   and London has been described as a world cultural capital. In Wales, all pupils at state schools must either be taught through the medium of Welsh or study it as an additional language until age 16, and the Welsh Language Act and the Government of Wales Act provide that the Welsh and English languages should be treated equally in the public sector, so far as is reasonable and practicable.
Irish and Ulster Scots enjoy limited use alongside English in Northern Ireland, mainly in publicly commissioned translations. The Gaelic Language Scotland Act , passed by the Scottish Parliament in , recognised Gaelic as an official language of Scotland and required the creation of a national plan for Gaelic to provide strategic direction for the development of the Gaelic language.
Dialects and regional accents vary amongst the four countries of the United Kingdom , as well as within the countries themselves. This is partially the result of the long history of immigration to the UK, for example Northern English dialects contain many words with Old Norse roots.
Although these accents have a high social prestige , since the s a greater permissiveness toward regional English varieties has taken hold in education. The early 18th century period of British literature is known as the Augustan Age and included the development of the novel.
Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe and Moll Flanders are often seen as the first English novels, however the development of the novel took place in a wider literary context that included the rise of prose satires — which reached a high point with Gulliver's Travels — and earlier foreign works like the Spanish Don Quixote.
Published in , it was viewed as the pre-eminent British dictionary until the completion of the Oxford English Dictionary years later. The subsequent Romantic period showed a flowering of poetry comparable with the Renaissance years earlier, and a revival of interest in vernacular literature.
In Scotland the poetry of Robert Burns revived interest in Scots literature, and the Weaver Poets of Ulster were influenced by literature from Scotland. In Wales the late 18th century saw the revival of the eisteddfod tradition, inspired by Iolo Morganwg. The period also saw the publication of A Vindication of the Rights of Woman , by Mary Wollstonecraft , is one of the earliest works of feminist philosophy. The late Georgian and Victorian era saw a renewed focus on the novel.
A key theme of these novels was social commentary. Early in the period Jane Austen satirised the lifestyle of the gentry and nobility, while the later novels of Charles Dickens often used humour and keen observations to criticise poverty and social stratification. Nevertheless, openly female authors achieved considerable success in the period, such as the predominantly religious poems of Elizabeth Barrett Browning and Christina Rossetti. Rudyard Kipling exemplifies the British Empire's influence on British literature.
World War I gave rise to British war poets and writers such as Wilfred Owen , Siegfried Sassoon , and Rupert Brooke , who wrote often paradoxically of their expectations of war, and their experiences in the trenches. Initially idealistic and patriotic in tone, as the war progressed the tone of the movement became increasinly sombre and pacifistic. The English novel developed in the 20th century into much greater variety and it remains today the dominant English literary form.
The contemporary British literary scene is marked by awards such as the Man Booker Prize , created in , and festivals including the Welsh Hay Festival , held since The prominent status of children's literature in the UK was demonstrated in the opening ceremony of the London Olympic Games , which contained sequence dedicated to prominent children's literary characters. Rowling making up the top five on the list. From its formation in the United Kingdom has had a vibrant tradition of theatre, much of it inherited from England, Scotland and Wales.
The Union of the Crowns coincided with the decline of highbrow and provocative Restoration comedy in favour of sentimental comedy, domestic tragedy such as George Lillo's The London Merchant , and by an overwhelming interest in Italian opera. Popular entertainment became more important in this period than ever before, with fair-booth burlesque and mixed forms that are the ancestors of the English music hall.
These forms flourished at the expense of other forms of English drama, which went into a long period of decline. In Scotland the opposite occurred, with the emergence of specifically Scottish plays including John Home's Douglas and the works of Walter Scott , which included original plays as well as adaptations of his Waverley novels.
The late 19th century saw revival of English theatre with arrival of Irishmen George Bernard Shaw and Oscar Wilde , who influenced domestic English drama and revitalised it. Their contemporaries Gilbert and Sullivan had a similar impact on musical theatre with their comic operas.
Conversely saw the first performance of Agatha Christie 's The Mousetrap , a drawing-room murder mystery that has seen over 25, performances and is the longest-running West End show.
Culture of the United Kingdom
Elsewhere the Royal Shakespeare Company was founded in at Stratford-upon-Avon , and continues to mainly stage Shakespeare's plays. Contemporary British theatre is focused on the West End , London's major theatre district. The Theatre Royal, Drury Lane in the City of Westminster dates back to , making it the oldest London theatre, however the Theatre Royal at the Bristol Old Vic is the oldest continually-operating theatre in the English speaking world, opening in British Baroque music was heavily influenced by continental fashions.
This is exemplified by George Frideric Handel , a German-born naturalised British citizen whose choral music set British taste for the next two centuries. His operas also helped Britain challenge Italy as a centre of operatic production.
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The establishment of the London Philharmonic Society in , Royal Academy of Music in , and Irish Academy of Music in aided the professionalisation of British classical music and patronage of composers. The Philharmonic Society was a strong supporter of the German Felix Mendelssohn , an early Romantic composer who also strongly influenced British music. The most notable trend in classical music at the turn of the century was the nationalistic trend that developed. This was initially seen in works like The Masque at Kenilworth , which reconstructed an Elizabethan masque, but later took a pastoral turn under the influence of the British folk revival.
Modern and contemporary classical music takes a variety of forms. Composers such as Benjamin Britten developed idiosyncratic and avant-garde styles, while the likes of William Walton produced more conventional ceremonial and patriotic music.
The UK now has several major orchestras, including the BBC Symphony Orchestra , and the Philharmonia , while the establishment of the Opera North in sought to redress the balance of operatic institutions away from London.
There are several classical festivals, such as Aldeburgh and Glydebourne , while the BBC Proms are an important annual fixture in the classical calendar. Popular commercial music in Britain can be traced back at least as far as the seventeenth-century broadside ballad , and also encompasses brass band music and music hall. Popular music in the modern sense began to emerge in the s, as the American styles of jazz and rock and roll became popular.
The skiffle revival was an early attempt to create a British form of American music, but it was the emergence of British rock and roll by the early s that established a viable UK popular music industry.
Genres such as beat and British blues were re-exported to America by bands such as the Beatles and Rolling Stones , in a move that came to be called the British Invasion. The development of blues rock helped differentiate rock and pop music, leading to the emergence of several sub-genres of rock in the s. Glam rock was a particularly British genre that emphasised outrageous costumes, while the end of the decade saw the rise of punk , new wave , and post-punk bands.
The influence of immigration could also be seen in the increased prominence of World music , particularly Jamaican music. The s were a successful decade in British pop, as a second British Invasion was witnessed and new technology enabled genres such as synthpop to form.
Jazz saw a resurgence as black British musicians created new fusions such as Acid Jazz. Indie rock was a reaction to the perceived saturation of the music industry by pop, exemplified by Stock Aitken Waterman 's domination of the charts. This continued in the s, as boy bands and girl groups dominated the singles chart, while the Madchester scene helped drive alternative rock and Britpop to the mainstream. British soul saw a rise that continued into the s, including the global success of Adele.
Dance music also saw innovation, with genres such as dubstep and new rave emerging. In contrast to the comparatively homogenous classical and pop genres, each nation of the UK has retained a distinct tradition of folk music.
What is British Culture? Essay
The traditional folk music of England has contributed to several genres, such as sea shanties , jigs , hornpipes and dance music. It has its own distinct variations and regional peculiarities, while musical Morris dancing is an English folk dance known to have existed at least as early as the midth century. The bagpipes have long been a national symbol of Scotland, and the Great Highland Bagpipe is widely recognised. The English and Scottish Popular Ballads , are ballads of the British Isles from the later medieval period until the 19th century, demonstrating freat regional variety, particularly local traditions such as the Border ballads , which include the particularly influential Ballad of Chevy Chase.
British folk groups, such as Fairport Convention , have drawn heavily from these ballads. Similarly, while the national anthem " God Save the Queen " and other patriotic songs such as " Rule, Britannia! These songs are often used at sporting events where each nation competes individually.
Britain has had a significant film industry for over a century. While many films focus on British culture, UK cinema is also marked by its interaction and competition with American and continental European cinema.
This had changed by the s, when the governemt encouraged fewer, higher-quality films to be made. This era also saw the rise of Alfred Hitchcock , who soon moved to the US and become one of the twentieth century's most influential directors.
The post-war period was a particular high point for British filmmaking, producing The Third Man and Brief Encounter , which the British Film Institute consider the best and second-best British films respectively.
At the end of the decade Hammer Films took advantage of relaxed censorship laws to begin their series of successful horror films. The beginning of the s saw the British New Wave style develop, influenced by its French counterpart, that sought to depict a wider strata of society in a realistic manner. The s also saw renewed American financial interest in British film, which particularly manifested itself in the development of historical epics , such as Best Picture winners Lawrence of Arabia and A Man for All Seasons ; spy thrillers , including the first films in the James Bond franchise; and films based on ' swinging London ' scene.
The s saw a withdrawal of American support and a retrenchment in British cinema, though the decade did see culturally important productions such as the horror The Wicker Man and Monty Python 's comedic films. Films with racial and LGBT themes were produced, while Channel 4's involvement saw television stars move into feature films. American investment again increased in the s, and the success of Four Weddings and a Funeral saw romantic comedies rise in popularity.
Merchant Ivory Productions , boosted by the Oscars success of the previous decade's period pieces, continued to produce films in the same vein. American studios also began to base the production of Hollywood films in the UK, encouraged by tax incentives.
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While American-funded films continued their influence in the s, domestic European co-productions also received acclaim. Asian British cinema has risen in prominence since , when East is East was a mainstream success on a low budget. The UK has been at the forefront of developments in film, radio and television.
Broadcasting in the UK has historically been dominated by the taxpayer-funded but independently run British Broadcasting Corporation commonly known as the BBC , although other independent radio and television ITV , Channel 4 , Five and satellite broadcasters especially BSkyB which has over 10 million subscribers have become more important in recent years.
BBC television, and the other three main television channels are public service broadcasters who, as part of their licence allowing them to operate, broadcast a variety of minority interest programming. The BBC and Channel 4 are state-owned, though they operate independently. Christmas commercials are screened from early November in the UK, with campaigns including the John Lewis Christmas advert for the department store chain. International football tournaments, such as the World Cup , are historically the most viewed sports events among the public, while Match of the Day is the most popular weekly football show.
Regarded as the leading figure of the satire boom, Peter Cook was ranked number one in the Comedians' Comedian poll.